Psoriasis is a chronic dermatological disease of the skin. Psoriasis is expressed in the form of red papules (swollen spots). In recent years, the disease has become more common in people between the ages of 20 and 30 years. Unfortunately, the level of modern medicine cannot prevent the spread of this disease. Why does psoriasis appear, what is the effective treatment? Let's understand in more detail.
The cause of the disease
There are many types of assumptions in the world about what causes psoriasis. However, this issue has not been fully studied in the medical field. There are various theories, but where psoriasis comes from is still unclear.
There are two main types of psoriasis: caused by hereditary factors (there is a shift of the immune system) and the so -called "late onset type" - after 40 years (affected areas - nails and joints).
Why does psoriasis appear?
At the level of modern medicine, psoriasis is considered a failure in an inseparable body system, and not as a separate disease. In addition to the usual skin rashes, patients experience dysfunction of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems.
There is no one answer to the question of what causes psoriasis. There are several specific theories of psoriasis. Let’s look at each in more detail.
The theory of immunity is recognized by many doctors around the world. According to this theory, psoriasis occurs due to dysfunction of the body’s immune system. What causes psoriasis on the body? Typical papules (bright red spots) appear as a result of an autoimmune attack. The immune system treats skin cells as foreign, so it gradually rejects them. In their place, characteristic papules appear.
Long ago, doctors proved that psoriasis can develop against the background of persistent infectious diseases: sinusitis, tonsillitis. This theory has a right to exist, because of the dysfunction of the immune system and provoking psoriasis. While studying papule scales, the scientists found that they contained antigen complexes that were not characteristic of healthy cells. There are antibodies to this complex in the blood, until rejection occurs - papules are formed.
Low immunity is a fertile ground for the development of psoriasis.
At the genetic level
Unfortunately, psoriasis can be inherited. However, it should be remembered that it is not the disease that is transmitted at the gene level, but the predisposition to it. This fact is confirmed by direct statistics: 60% of patients with psoriasis have blood relatives who have the same diagnosis.
If one of the parents is ill with this disease, then the probability of psoriasis in the child is 25%. If both parents suffer from psoriasis, the risk increases to 75%.
Scientists have proven that the disease is directly related to chromosomal regions, which determine the degree of inflammatory response in the skin. However, genetic predisposition cannot be considered a major cause of psoriasis.
Some people are resistant to psoriasis. Among them were the Indians living in the Andes, the Eskimos. These people have genetic traits, which thanks to their representatives never get psoriasis.
What causes psoriasis in adults? According to endocrine theory, psoriasis can occur as a result of hormonal dysfunction. This theory was put forward by doctors after carefully analyzing the course of the disease itself. Excessive skin cell production is believed to be due to disruption of the body’s regulatory functions. Therefore, due to dysfunction of the endocrine system.
During hormonal surges in women (ovulation and menstruation) and during pregnancy, psoriasis is activated. However, to date, scientists have not identified hormones that influence the appearance of such psoriasis. For this reason endocrine theory cannot be said to be fundamental.
The neurogenic theory is considered one of the latest. According to him, psoriasis arises "from the nerves", respectively, psychological factors are to blame. Psoriasis provokes neurosis. As a result of neurosis, blood vessels narrow, the blood supply to the skin becomes weak, therefore papules form.
So it is not for nothing that everyone around, when asked about what causes psoriasis, immediately replied that it was from the nerves.
According to a number of studies, it became clear that stress, deep internal experience, nervous shock is a stimulus for the appearance of skin rashes.
There is also a viral theory. Within the framework, doctors argue that psoriasis can appear as a result of infection. Indeed, during infectious diseases, papules appear more frequently, and lymph nodes increase. However, a number of doctors attribute such changes to a weakness of the immune system in general.
In the entire history of the existence of this disease, no specific pathogen can be known that will provoke the appearance and development of psoriasis.
Psoriasis is a disease that is not transmitted through contact. Not a single case of infection with this disease has been recorded even after a blood transfusion from an infected person to a patient.
Disorders in metabolic processes
During psoriasis, many patients have low temperatures, high cholesterol levels, disorders of the metabolism of vitamins, carbohydrates and trace elements. All of these show signs of metabolic disorders in the body.
As a result of repeated studies in patients with psoriasis, doctors have concluded that one of the reasons for the emergence of this disease is a violation of metabolic processes.
Factors that trigger the appearance of psoriasis
To understand exactly what causes psoriasis, it is necessary to outline the various factors that can provoke its appearance. Some of the strongest factors are as follows:
- stress, negative emotions, mental trauma, emotional and physical exhaustion are fertile places for recurrence of psoriasis;
- infectious diseases, vaccinations;
- changes in the body in hormone levels (during puberty, during pregnancy, lactation);
- physical injuries: scratches, burns, bites, frostbite;
- taking certain medications: antibiotics, vitamin complexes, immunostimulants;
- with improper nutrition (abundance of sweet, fatty, fried, and even alcohol in the diet);
- when the climate changes (bad conditions - humid climate, sudden temperature changes);
- in the presence of other dermatological diseases: dermatitis, fungal.
The cause of psoriasis can be hidden in one of the factors. Therefore, patients suffering from this disease should minimize the manifestation of the above external factors that influence relapse.
The main symptoms
Psoriasis can manifest itself at any age, including children. Moreover, the earlier the disease appears, the more precisely it will eventually enter an advanced stage.
How psoriasis appears, the photo below shows: the formation of rashes, cracks, papules on the surface of the skin (red spots with white scales).
The first signs of psoriasis are:
- cracks and pustular rashes on the skin;
- peeling nail plate;
- blisters appear on the palms of the hands and feet;
- strongly peeled skin;
- itching in the papule area.
With the progression of the disease, the number of papules increases to 10 cm. The skin in the damaged area is sensitive, but the hairline remains.
There are various forms of manifestations of psoriasis:
- moderate - spread on the skin of the feet (on the surface of the knee extensor), papules covered with white scales;
- seborrheic psoriasis usually occurs in people who also suffer from seborrhea; the disease is characterized by the appearance of yellow papules, which are attached to the sebum, they do not allow the inflammatory process and are mainly localized on the scalp, behind the ears and on the face;
- arthropathic psoriasis - papules appear on the sites of joints, feet and hands, therefore, the disease interferes with their normal movement;
- inverted - papules are localized in the natural folds of the body, often the form of the disease is adjacent to problems in the endocrine system of the body;
- psoriasis of tears can appear on the head, from which psoriasis of this form appears - it is not known for sure;
- nail psoriasis - the disease appears exclusively on the nail plate - they are thickened and deformed, the nails affected by the disease look like a bird's beak;
- psoriatic erythroderma is a very severe form of psoriasis manifestation, characterized by plaque consolidation; if the patient’s case is ignored, then the plaque can cover the entire body. Such accompanying manifestations: swelling, peeling, redness, severe itching and very unhealthy.
What causes psoriasis on the hands? The reason is purely individual.
There are various factors and theories that cannot be fully proven. However, many doctors agree that the cause of psoriasis can be hidden in disorders of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems.
Stages of psoriasis
There are three stages of psoriasis:
- Progressive stage - it is characterized by a rash of bright red color with a possible increase in quantity. If you do not undergo timely treatment, the disease will continue.
- Stationary stage - new papules do not appear, and those on the skin have stopped growing.
- Regressive stage - the papule fades significantly, its size decreases, and exfoliation becomes less or stops altogether.
To properly diagnose and determine the degree of psoriasis, a professional consultation of a dermatologist is required. With the help of visual inspection, laboratory studies and microscopy, he or she will be able to make an accurate diagnosis and determine the available levels.
Psoriasis appears: what to do?
Psoriasis is a complex disease, its treatment takes a long time. Relapses often appear even after the disease is prolonged. The main goal of treatment is to get rid of the skin rash. That is why it is necessary to prescribe treatment individually, depending on the progression of the disease, the accompanying symptoms and relapse.
External and internal medicine are distinguished between the main treatment methods.
External treatment for psoriasis:
- ointment on a solid basis, lanolin and fat;
- tar pain;
- mustard ointment;
- hormonal ointment (usually the doctor prescribes at a progressive stage of the disease).
- vitamin complex;
- sedative, neuroleptic;
- antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs;
- metabolic stimulants;
- immunopharmaceutical agents.
In addition to drug treatment, patients need to remove sweet, fried, spicy, smoked foods from food. Do not eat ice cream, coffee, carbonated drinks, mushrooms or pickled foods.
Psoriasis is a chronic disease that is not transmitted through contact. The causes and factors of the appearance of psoriasis are very significant in their diversity, so that almost everyone is at risk. That is why you need to pay attention to your own health and to strengthen the immune system. Avoid stressful situations and nervous tension! Think first and imagine how stressful can be your future. Be healthy!